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Survey of Recent Developments in Strategic Management: Implicati - پایگاه مقالات علمی مدیریت
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  • Title: Survey of Recent Developments in Strategic Management: Implications for Practitioners
    Authors:
    Kukalis, Sal
    Subject: Strategic Management
    Publish: 2009
    Status: full text
    Source: nternational Journal of Management; Apr2009, Vol. 26 Issue 1, p99-106
    Preparation: Scientific Database Management Journal Articles www.SYSTEM.parsiblog.com
    Abstract: his paper is a survey of recent developments in the field of strategic management. Specifically, this paper argues that recent political, economic, and social changes, among other things, have had relatively little impact on operations in organizations, but have made a big difference to the planning and strategic aspects of management. The analysis and synthesis of the recent developments in strategic management developed in this paper argues that strategic management is entering "a new era" in which (1) stakeholders interests are more important than before and (2) there is a greater concern for social responsibility than ever before. According to the analysis, these features of the new era are deep and pervasive trends that are much more than just responses to recent events such as corporate scandals.     --Download Article

    Introduction: For most organizations the transition from the twentieth century to the twenty-first has
    had little significance in terms of change of operations. However, the new millennium
    has brought on new conditions that necessitated new planning and other management
    processes. Dess and Lumpkin (2001) has well documented the emerging issues in
    strategy-making processes. The massive managerial advances (known as the reengineering
    or re-structuring era) brought about in the 1990s (Bowman and Singh 1993)
    was quickly overshadowed by first the collapse of the dot com economy and second by
    the September 11, 2001 destruction of the World Trade Center in New York and the
    ensuing Iraq war and recently the stock options backdating.
    Both of the foregoing events resulted in loss of faith in what was called the “New
    Economy” and the loss of faith in institutions and economic agreements that had
    dominated international relations for over half a century (The Economist 1996). As a
    result, the fall-out for the business world was considerable. The world
    economy was plugged into a recession in the early 2000s and U. S. Government’s war
    on terrorism resulted in increasing trends towards “unilaterism” which consequently
    reversed many of the trends towards closer integration of the world economy. Hoskisson
    et al. (2001) have abundantly clarified that restructuring was taking place in most
    emerging economies as well during this time.
    All of these events, whether domestic or international, imply that planning for the
    future is becoming harder and harder. Strategy managers across the spectrum need to
    re-assess their traditional planning processes. Need for new means or tools of scanning
    the different systems operating in any organization’s external environment are becoming
    increasingly important. New forecasting techniques need to be established to address
    the emerging instability and volatility of world markets. Expecting the unexpected in all aspects of an organization’s environment should be the rule rather than the exception
    as it used to be in the twentieth century economy. According to Lurie’s (2004) research,
    even the consumers are facing different decision making approaches in this informationrich
    environments.
    The purpose of this paper is to review recent developments in strategic planning processes
    and understand their implications for both strategy scholars and practitioners. First a
    review of some of the new developments and trends which have been shaping up the
    early part of this millennium are presented. Then, implications for strategic planning of
    those developments are analyzed. These implications are hoped to be helpful to strategy
    managers in generating new ideas that more than likely will reshape our thinking and
    strategies on how to cope with this era of high uncertainty and rapid change.


    Quo Vadis from Here
    Alan Greenspan, the former Chairman of the US Federal Reserve Bank, dubbed the
    phrase “irrational exuberance” in the late 1990s in describing the new economy of the
    dot com era then. At the heart of the new economy was a subtle shift taking place
    in corporate America. The shift from industrial economy to digital economy where
    intellectual capital was replacing brick and mortar assets had created a new challenge
    for strategic planning.
    This new and emerging digital economy driven by digital technologies and new
    communications media had novel means or requirements of success. The new economy
    of the late 1990s has been described as the “third industrial revolution” (Grant 2005).
    Different companies rushed to capitalize on this new asset of knowledge or intellectual
    capital. Traditional strategies of lowering cost or taking advantage of economies of
    scale were no longer the first choice for managers. On-line methods (business-toconsumer
    or business-to-business) have challenged traditional marketing and distribution
    strategies.
    The potential for the digital economy to create new means to advance productivity across
    the board and to revolutionize traditional manufacturing and distribution technologies
    seems robust. The prospects of the digital economy, using advanced telecommunication
    systems and informational technology predicated on good reputation will transform
    many management processes such as transforming traditional decision-making processes
    into paperless processes and real-time decision making. As Alan Greenspan (2000),
    put it in a speech:
    “In today’s world, where ideas are increasingly displacing the physical in the production
    of economic value, competition for reputation becomes a significant driving force,
    propelling our economy forward. Manufactured goods often can be evaluated before
    the completion of a transaction. Service providers, on the other hand, usually can offer
    only their reputations.”
    Thus, the digital economy will make it imperative for companies to lean heavily on their
    good reputation to be successful in this hypercompetitive marketplace.

    Emerging New Values and Social Systems
    An important process of any strategy is to match organizational resources and ives
    with opportunities found in its macro environment. A major force in the external
    environment is the value/social system of the immediate and greater community(ies)
    where that organization conducts its business transactions. Compatibility between
    interests of business organizations and interests of their community or society should
    be the goal of any socially responsible business.
    Traditional corporate strategies which have been emphasizing the maximization of
    shareholders’ value need to, at least, partially reflect on maximization or fulfillment
    of society’s interests. The recent collapse of some high profile U.S. firms, such as
    WorldCom, Enron, Global Logistics, and Health South are primary examples of the
    failure of these companies in reacting positively and quickly to changing societal values
    and beliefs. These companies were major advocates of maximizing shareholders values
    under any circumstances. Evolving societal values in this digital economy are rapidly
    changing.
    This trend has created a challenge and a need to strategic planners to be able to predict
    such changing needs and values in a timely fashion. Enron and WorldCom planning
    and value systems have ignored the upsurge in demands by different societal forces for
    an increased and proactive role of socially responsible corporate citizens.


    Emerging Competitive Forces
    One of the consequences of the digital economy and its information technology
    is the ever increasing competition which is dubbed “Hypercompetition” by
    Lucas (2005). The electronic commerce and the Internet of the digital economy
    have created a greater competition than existed during the past economy.
    A hypercompetitive economy has to depend heavily on the generation of new resources
    for the firm, such as new products, services, procedures, and processes. Companies in
    the digital age find their investments and assets depreciate very rapidly. It has been
    estimated that a brand new PC depreciates at the rate of ten percent a month.
    The Internet abolished some of the traditional barriers to entry in a number of industries.
    It also resulted in creating instant global markets for little known businesses. It has
    created a new, for less costly, distribution channel which drove cost of distribution to
    minimal levels compared to traditional distribution channels. All of that resulted in
    lowering profit margins per unit.
    The creation of electronic commerce has profoundly changed rules of the game for
    competitors. Weak entry and exit barriers, instant global and national markets, and
    increasing price transparency have intensified competition. This internet era has
    transformed the traditional competitive variables in many industries. This emerging
    competitive environment made strategies such as winner-take-all markets not that
    uncommon strategy in some industries.

     

    Emerging Manufacturing Strategies
    Manufacturing in its traditional mode where company’s assets is most invested in
    heavy equipment and other tangible assets is on the decline as a consequence to the
    digital economy and outsourcing. More than half of capital investment in the U.S. is
    in information technology. As a consequence this resulted in having innovation occurs
    at a rapid pace. As a matter of fact, U.S. manufacturing jobs have been in a descending
    trend since the early 1990s.
    The digital economy has eliminated manufacturing all together in some industries. A
    new form of companies called the “virtual corporation or organization” is on the rise.
    These trends suggest that since technological and competitive conditions are changing
    rapidly, business organizations need to be more flexible in responding to the exigencies
    of the marketplace.
    To enhance flexibility, companies have resorted to rely on outside independent firms.
    Almost 95 percent of virtual company operations or processes are outsourced. In some
    industries such as software or semiconductor, only two functions are under management
    control, that is, the research and development function and the firm headquarters is the other.


    Emerging Trends in Strategic Planning
    In the pre-internet economy, the premises of strategic planning were somewhat
    benign: low inflation, reasonable consumer demand, stable regulations, low interest
    rates, and stable equity markets. This stability in the business environment enabled
    strategic planners then to proceed with their aggressive strategies such as re-structuring,
    downsizing, outsourcing, refocusing, and engaging in drastic cost cuts. Those strategies
    resulted in substantially improving the bottom lines results of many large firms.
    As we entered the twenty-first century most of the aforementioned strategies were
    exploited to the limit. The substantial gains in profits of the late 1990s began to disappear.
    As a result, firm’s valuations or stock prices suffered. Some executives responded to
    demands and high expectations by their shareholders in unethical approaches, such
    as, what was known then as “creative accounting.” In the short run, they employed
    creative accounting measures which kept valuation high. At some point, those firms
    ran out of any new or creative scheme to artificially boost revenues and profits. Well,
    by now we all know that that the path chosen (i.e., creative accounting) was the wrong
    strategy to follow.
    Serious and responsible firms opted to take a step back and think strategically of what
    can they do to reverse their fortunes. A new strategy of focusing on what they know best
    or focusing on areas of their business where they have obvious and clear competitive
    advantages is gaining popularity.
    For instance, some utilities firms have decided to choose refocusing on energy generation
    and distribution and to exist from energy trading and other non-core businesses.
    Similarly, some banks decided to focus on traditional banking services and to exit from
    brokerage and investment businesses. --Download Article



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    ..::""بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم""::.. ««لکل شی‏ء زکات و زکات العلم نشره»» - دانش آموخته دکتری تخصصی مدیریت تولید و عملیات دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی و فارغ التحصیل فوق لیسانس رشته مدیریت صنعتی و معارف اسلامی دانشگاه امام صادق علیه السلام هستم. پس از سال ها پریشانی از " فقدان استراتژی کلان علمی" که خود مانع بزرگی سر راه بسیاری از تدابیر کلانِ بخشی محسوب می شد، هم اکنون با تدبیر حکیمانه مقام معظم رهبری چشم انداز 20 ساله جمهوری اسلامی ایران مبنای ارزشمندی است که بر اساس آن بتوان برای تعیین تکلیف بسیاری از تصمیمات و امور بر زمین مانده چاره اندیشی کرد. در ابتدای این چشم انداز آمده است : " ایران کشوری است با جایگاه اول علمی ، اقتصادی، ..." مشاهده می شود که کسب جایگاه نخست در حوزه های علم و دانش، آرمان مقدم کشورمان می باشد. این حقیقت، ضرورت هدایت دغدغه خاطرها و اراده ها و توانمندی ها به سوی کسب چنین جایگاهی را روشن می سازد. جهت دستیابی به این چشم انداز، برنامه ریزی ها، تصمیم گیری ها، تدارک ساز وکارهای متناسب و اولویت بندی آن ها، تعاملات و تقسیم کارها و ... جزء اصول و مبانی پیشرفت و توسعه تلقی می شوند. اولین گامی که جهت توسعه دادن مرزهای علم باید طی کرد، یادگیری حدود مرزهای علم می باشد. بر این اساس اینجانب به همراه تعدادی از دوستانم در دانشگاه امام صادق(ع) و دیگر دانشگاه ها جهت ایجاد یک حرکت علمی و ایفای نقش در جنبش نرم افزاری تولید علم بوسیله معرفی سرحد مرزهای علم و دانش ، اقدام به راه اندازی "پایگاه مقالات علمی مدیریت" نمودیم. هم اکنون این پایگاه بیش از 4200 عضو پژوهشگر و دانشجوی مدیریت دارد و مشتاق دریافت مقالات علمی مخاطبین فرهیخته خود می باشد. کلیه پژوهشگران ارجمند میتوانند جهت ارسال مقالات خود و یا مشاوره رایگان از طریق پست الکترونیک tavallaee.r@gmail.com مکاتبه نمایند.

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